A. Because urologists and nephrologists both treat kidney problems, knowing which type of doctor to see can be confusing. Urologists are surgical specialists who focus on anatomical or structural disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract. They treat problems such as kidney stones, kidney blockages, and kidney cancer. Urologists are qualified to perform surgery and outpatient medical procedures to correct such conditions. Nephrologists are medical specialists who focus on disorders that affect the way the kidneys work such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Nephrologists prescribe nonsurgical medical treatments for these disorders. The roles of nephrologists and urologists often overlap and they work together on conditions having both medical and surgical requirements.